5th Impressionist Exhibition Paris
National Gallery of Canada and Royal Canadian Academy founded
Bocklin Island of the Dead
Repin Religious Procession
Ryder The Flying Dutchman
von Marees Golden Age
Cezanne: Chateau de Medan
Pissaro: The Outer Boulevards
Cezanne: Chateau de Medan
Renoir: Place Clichy
Rodin: The Thinker

Gilbert and Sullivan: The Pirates of Penzance
Guildhall School of Music

Dostoevsky: The Brothers Karamazov
J.C.Harris: Uncle Remus
Jens Jacobson: Nils Lyhne
Longfellow: Ultima Thule
Zola Nana and new art criticism
Harris Uncle Remus
Pierre Loti: Le Mariage de Loti
Llew Wallace: Ben Hur
Maupassant: Contes

Streets in New York lit by electricity
Pasteur discovers a chicken cholera vaccine
Laveran discovers the malarial parasite




Edison and Swan independently devise the first electric lights
1st Test Match between England and Australia in England
Canned fruits and meats first appear in stores
De Bees founded
Parcel Post introduced in England
World Exhibition takes place in Melbourne



Rudolph Thygesen born
Arthur Dove born
Andre Derain born
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner born
Franz MARC born
Jacob Epstein sculptor born

Ernest Bloch born
Jaques Offenbach dies

L Strachey born
George Eliot died
Gustave Flaubert dies




6th Impressionist exhibition Paris
Societe of Artists founded
Cezanne Mill on the Couleuvre

Bela Bartok born
Offenbach Tales of Hoffmann
Johannes Brahms: Academic Festival Overture Op.80

National Theatre Prague founded
Rossetti A Pageant and Other Poems
Flaubert: Bouvard et Pecuchet
Henry James: Portrait of a Lady
Maupassant: La Maison Tellier
A.France: Le Crime de Sylvestre Bonnard

Work begins on Panama Canal .
Vatican archives opened to scholars


Bocklin: Die Toteninsel
Monet: Sunshine and Snow

D'Oyly Carte builds the Savoy Theatre, London
Offenbach: Les Contes d'Hoffmann
Moussorgsky dies

R L Stevenson: Virginibus Puerisque

St Gotthard Tunnel completed
First US Lawn Tennis Championship


Pablo Picasso born
Max Liebermann: Alt-Manner-Heim
Max Weber born
Harald Giersing born
Natalia Goncharova born
Clive Bell born


Andre Salmon born
P G Wodehouse born
E M Dell born
A Moissi born
Dostoevsky dies

Disraeli dies



7th Impressionist Exhibition
Edouard MANET A Bar at the Folies Bergeres
Paul CEZANNE: Self Portrait
Edouard MANET: Bar aux Folies-Bergere
Eric Gill born
George BRAQUE born
Courbet retrospective Ecole des Beaux-Arts

Millocker: Der Bettelstudent in Vienna
Tchaikovsky: 1812 Overture
Gounod: The Redemption - Birmingham
Rimsky-Korsakov: The Snow Maiden - St Petersburg
Gilbert and Sullivan: Iolanthe - London

R L Stevenson: Treasure Island
Becque: Les Corbeaux
Ibsen: An Enemy of the People
F Anstey: Vice Vers
George Bernard Shaw: Cashel Byron's Profession
Sardou: Fedora
George Bernard Shaw: Cashel
Maupassant Mademoiselle Fifi
Wilde Vera or the NihilistsByron's Profession

Josephy Breuer uses hypnosis to treat hysteria
Edison designs first hydroelectric plant



Richard Wagner: Parsifal - Bayreuth
Debussy: Le Printemps.
Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra founded




George Bellows born
Aristarkh Lentulov born
Mikhail Larionov born


S Undset born
Aasta Nielsen film star born
Trollope, Longfellow die




Durand Ruel Impressionist exhibitions London, Berlin, Rottendam, Boston
Monet, Renoir and Sisley one-man shows at Paris Gallery
Renoir and Monet visit south of France
Exhibition of Japanese prints Petits
Huysman L'Art moderne

Metropolitan Opera opens New York

Stevenson Treasure Island
Nietzche Also Sprach Zarathustra

First 10 story skyscaper built, in Chicago
Orient Express makes first run
Statue of Liberty presented by France to USA


Erich Heckel born
, Gonzales die

Richard Wagner dies





Manet exhibition at Ecole des Beaux-Arts and Studio sale
First exhibition of Les XX Brussels
Caillebotte Man at his Bath
Moreau Chimeras
Pissarro Apple Pickers
Rodin Burghers of Calais
Sargent Madame X
Seurat La Grande Jatte
Seurat Bathers at Asnieres
Edward BURNE-JONES King Cophetua and the Beggar Maid
Seurat Bathers at Asnieres rejected by the Salon
1st Salon des Independants in Paris
Rodin Burghers of Calais

Nellie Melba debuts as Gilda in Rigoletto Brussels
Hungarian State Opera House opens
Debussy Enfant Prodigue
Massenet Manon

Chekhov The Shooting Party
Ibsen Wild Duck
Twain Huckleberry Finn

Mergenthaler invents Linotype machine Baltimore US
First underground railway opened in London


Amedeo MODIGLIANI born
Jean Heiberg born
Hans Makart dies
Karl Schmidt-Rottluff born






George Sigl develops mechanical press for lithography
Gustav COURBET Young Ladies from the Village
Homan-Hunt Valentine Rescuing Sylvia from Proteus
Leutze Washington Crossing the Delaware





van Klenze completes Hermitage St Petersburg
Honore DAUMIERs Lithograph The Orchestra during the Performance of a Tragedy





Rosa BONHEUR The Horse Fair
Eugene DELACROIXAlfed Bruyas


Chernyshevsky The Aethetic Relations of Art to Reality

Crimean war begins


Eugene DELACROIX Christ on the Sea of Galilee
William Holden HUNT: The Light of the World
Rossetti Found





Gustav COURBET exhibits paintings inc The Studio of the Painter in his Pavilion of Realism
International Exposition Paris
Edgar DEGAS Portrait of the Duchess Morbilli

Chopin Seven Polish Songs
Berlioz Les Troyens

Longfellow Hiawatha



Ingres Madame Moitessier Seated
Ingres La Source
Millais The Blind Girl



Rebuilt Bolshoi theatre opens Moscow


Frederic CHURCH Niagara
Millet The Gleaners
Rejlander The Two Ways of Life
James Abbot McNeill WHISTLER Self Portrait

Glinka dies




National Gallery of Scotland opens
Millet Angelus
Church Heart of the Andes
Moran Ruins of the Nile



Suez Canal company founded


Manet Absinthe Drinker rejected by the Salon
 registers as copyist at the Louvre
Courbet meets Baudelaire,
Eugene BOUDIN and Monet in Honfleur


Darwin The Origin of Species
Dickens A Tale of Two Cities
Fitzgerald's translation of The Rubaiyat of Omar Kayyam

Boulevarde Saint-Michel completed Paris


Renoir registers as copyist at the Louvre
Monet  drafted and sent to Algeria
Carpeaux Hugolino

Richard Wagner concerts in Paris
Garnier Opera House begun Paris


Free trade treaty between France and Britain
Lincoln elected US President


Delacroix finishes frescos in St Supice
Manet has 2 paintings accepted at the Salon
Inness Delaware Water Gap
Dore Illustrations for Dante's Inferno

Johannes Brahms Piano Concerto No.1
Mussorgsky Intermezzo in modo classico
Rimsky Korsakov Sym. No.1


Start of American Civil War


Renoir admitted to Ecole des Beaux Arts
Founding exhibition of Societe des Aqua Fortistes Paris
Manet exhibits etchings discussed by Baudelaire
Astruc founds Le Salon
National Museum of Warsaw opened
Honore DAUMIER Third Class Carriage
Frith The Railway Station
Whistler Symphony in white


Hugo Les Miserables

World's Fair London


Baudelaires Peintre de la vie moderne
Monet Renoir Sisley and Bazille in Chantilly
Galerie Martinet exhibits works by David Courbet Rousseau Diaz Camille COROT Manet
13 students withdraw from Academy of Arts St Petersburg and set up St Petersburg Artists Co-operative
Manet  Dejeuner dur l'herbe and Olympia
Delacroix dies



Lincoln's Gettysburg Address


Delacroix retrospective and estate sales
Finnish Artists Association founded
Henri FANTIN-LATOUR Hommage a Delacroix
Rodin Man with the Broken Nose
Corot Souvenir de Mortefontaine
Cameron Portrait of Ellen Terry
Flandrin dies

Grieg Symphony

Larousse vol 1 of Grand Dictionnaire Universel
Verne Journey to the Centre of the Earth

Pasteur develops germ theory of disease


1st book published using chromolithography to reproduce works of art
Manet Olympia
Manet The Mocking of Christ
at Paris salon
Gustav COURBET paints Proudhon on his deathbed
Nadar Portrait of George Sand
Homer Pitching Horseshoes

Richard Wagner Tristan and Isolde
Grieg Violin Sonata No.1
Dvorak Bells of Zionice

Tolstoy War and Peace
Carroll Alice's adventures in Wonderland

President Lincoln assassinated


Bierstadt Storm in the Rockies
Cezanne The Artist's Father

Rimsky Korsakov Overture on Russian themes
Offenbach La Vie Parisienne

Zola writes Mon Salon dedicated to Cezanne
Dostoevsky Crime and Punishment
Swinburne Poems and Ballads



Ingres retrospective Ecole des Beaux-Arts
Pissarro The Hermitage at Pontoise
Pierre PRUD'HON Le Principe de l'art et sa destination sociale
Rousseau dies
Ingres dies

Mussorgsky Night on the Bare Mountain

Zola Therese Raquin
Ibsen Peer Gynt
Baudelaire dies

Universal Exposition Paris


Cezanne and Degas apply to copy at the Louvre
Gauguin enlists in the Navy
Manet Renoir and Pissarro at Salon
Manet Portrait of Emile Zola
Manet the Balcony
Wyspianski dies
St Gaudens dies

J Strauss Tales from the Vienna Woods
Rossini dies

Bibliotheque National Paris opens
Dostoevsky The Idiot
Alcott Little Women



Bazille Summer Scene
Carpeaux La Danse
Monet and Renoir La Grenouillere

Petipa DonQuixote ballet


Suez Canal completed


Bazille killed in Franco Prussian War
Association of Travelling Art Exhibits formed Moscow
Edward BURNE-JONES the wheel of Fortune
Renoir The Promenade

Richard Wagner Die Walkure

Verne Twenty Thousand Leagues under the Sea
Dickens dies



Courbet becomes president of Commune Art Commission
First travelling exhibition of the Wanderers

Giuseppe Verdi Aida debuts in Egypt to celebrate Suez Canal opening

Elliot Middlemarch
Rimbaud Bateau ivre



Winslow HOMER Snap the Whip

Tschaikovsky Symphony No.2

Carroll Through the Looking Glass



Cezanne Small Houses at Auvers
Monet The Luncheon (Argentueil)
Anderson Wandschirm


Tolstoy Anna Karenina



Degas Place de la Concorde
1st Exhibition of Societe Anoyme des Artistes Peintres Sculpteurs et Graveurs at Nadars Blvd des Capucines Paris

Garnier Opera House opens
Alarcon Three Cornered Hat
Giuseppe Verdi Requiem
Saint Saens Danse Macabre
Offenbach Orpheus in the Underworld

Hardy Far from the Madding Crowd



Eakins The Gross Clinic
Liebermann In the Bathhouse
Corot, Millet, Carpeaux die

Gilbert Sullivan Trial by Jury
Bizet Carmen
Bizet dies

James The Passionate Pilgrim and Other Tales



Manet Portrait of Mallarme
Rodin Age of Bronze
Whistler Peacock Room
Manet illustrates Mallarme's l'Apres midi d'un faune

Wagner Festival debuts at the Bayreuth Opera House

Twin Adventures of Tom Sawyer
Sand dies

Bell invents the Telephone


3rd Impressionist Exhibition includes
Caillebotte Paris Street Rainy Day
Monet Gare St-Lazare
Renoir Ball at the Moulin de la Galette
Whistler Nocturne in Blue and Gold
Courbet dies

Mozart Festivals held in Salzburg
Tschaikovsky Swan Lake ballet premieres at Bolshoi

Ibsen Pillars of Society

Edison invents the phonograph


Cassatt Little Girl in a Blue Armchair
Matjeko Battle of Grunewaldi
Menzel Supper at the Ball
Yaroshenko The Stoker
Duret publishes Les Peintres Impressionists

Gilbert and Sullivan HMS Pinafore

Hardy Return of the Native

World Exposition Paris


4th Impressionist Exhibition
Honore DAUMIER dies

Tschaikovsky Piano Concerto No.2

Ibsen A Doll's House premieres in Copenhagen
Dostoevsky The Brothers Karamazov
Strinberg The Red Room

Edison invents electric light bulb


Ferdinand LEGER born


First cabarets founded by Rodolphe Salis Chat Noir in Paris



Ilya Mashkov born


A. Wildgans poet born





S Zweig born



Delacroix retrospective Ecole des Beaux-Arts
Durand Ruel Group exhibit Brussels
Eakins Swimming
Signac The Modistes

Massenet Le Cid
Dvorak Hymn of the Czech Peasants

Zola Germinal
Maupassant Bel-Ami
Hugo dies



Robert DELAUNAY born
George SEURAT paints La Grande Jatte
Vladimir Tatlin born
VAN GOGH paints The Potato Eaters

Aristide Bruant founds Le Mirliton in Montmatre Paris
Victor Hugo dies
Peter Kropotkin publishes selected essays
Karl Marx - Das Kapital vol2
Ezra Pound born
Emile Zola - Germinal


Louis Pasteur discovers vaccine for rabies
Karl Benz builds first single cylinder motorcar engine


8th and last Impressionist exhibition Paris
Klimt Vienna City Theatre Murals
2nd Salon des Independants

Jean Moreas publishes Symbolist Manifesto in Le Figaro
Saint Saens Carnival of the animals

Stevenson The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde.

Statue of Liberty unveiled in USA


Gauguin sails for Martinique
Muybridge Animal Locomotion
Renoir The Bathers

Giuseppe Verdi Otello
Bruckner Symphony No.8
Borodin dies

Theatre Litre founded Paris
Conan Doyle A Study in Scarlet



Durand Ruel opens New York Gallery
1st Art amd Crafts exhibition London
Gauguin  visits van Gogh in Arles
Sargent visits Monet in Giverny
Albert BIERSTADT The Last of the Buffalo
Ensor Entry of Christ into Brussels
Gauguin  Vision after the Sermon
van Gogh The Night Café
Serusier The Talisman

Debussy Ariettes Oubliees
Gilbert & Sullivan Yeoman of the Guard
Paderewski Piano Concerto
Rimsky Korsakov Sheherazade

.Mallarme translates poems of Poe
Kipling Plain Tales and Soldiers Three




Friedrich Nietzsche - Beyond Good and Evil


Fluorine discovered


1st exhibition of French Impressionist artists work in America

Emile Zola - L'Oeuvre




Frederick Etchells born





Oskar KOKOSCHKA born





Axel Revold born





Olaf Rude born





Marcel DUCHAMP born

Jules Leforgue dies


Work begins on EIFFEL TOWER  Paris


Juan GRIS born

Stephane Mallarme - Poesies


Queen Victoria's Golden Jubilee


August Macke born

Richard Wagner - Lohengrin, first Paris performance




George SEURAT La Grande Jatte shown in Brussels





Ggiorgio de CHIRICO born

T S Eliot born


Kodak box camera launched


Nils von Dardel born



Jack the Ripper murders 6 women in London


Exposition universelle in Paris
Max LIEBERMANN founds Berlin Secession
Issaac Grunewald born
Per Krong born
Serusier, Maurice DENIS and Pierre BONNARD form the Nabis, later joined by EDVARD VUILLARD and Xavier Roussel
VAN GOGH enters asylum in St Remy
Edward Wadsworth born

Ludwig Wittigenstein born


Exhibition universelle in Paris
Adolf Hitler born
Moulin Rouge opens in Paris
Invention of cordite


David Bomberg born

Mercure de France founded by Vallette


First steel-framed building erected in Chicago


Sergei Diaghilev joins World of Art, St Petersburg

Theatre d'Art founded by Fort


Worldwide flu epidemic


VAN GOGH moves to Auvers and commits suicide on 29 july
Monet collects fund to buy Manet Olympia which is hung in the Palais de Luxembourg
Exhibition of over 900 Ukiyo-e prints at Ecole des Beaux-Arts
Sargent begins murals Boston Public Library
Ferenczy Boys on the Danube
Holder the Night
Toulouse Lautrec At the Moulin Rouge

Petipa and Tchaikovsky Sleeping Beauty ballet debuts St Petersburg
Borodin Prince Igor

Wilde Picture of Dorian Gray
Riis How the Other Half Lives.
Maurice Denis publishes Definition du neo-traditionnisme in Art et Critique



Henri Gaudier-Brzeska born
1st exhibition of Finnish artists
Gauguin sails for Tahiti
Claude MONET Haystacks series
Durand Ruel 1st Nabis exhibition
France buys James Abbot McNeill WHISTLER study in Grey and Black
Puvis de Chavannes Shepherds Song
Seurat, Jongkind, Choquet dies

Revue Blanche founded by Natanson brothers
Carnegie Hall New York built
Rachmaninoff Piano Concerto No.1
Delibes dies

Hardy Tess of the d'Urbervilles

Trans Siberian Railway Constructed


1st exhibition of Rose + Croix group Paris
Pissarro and Renoir one man shows
Secession exhibitions Berlin and Munich
Gauguin Manau Tupapau

Tchaikovsky The Nutcracker ballet debuts St Petersburg
Sibelius En Saga and Kullervo

Stendhal Souvenirs d'egotisme
whitman, Tennyson Renan die

Cholera epidemic in France


Gauguin leaves for Tahiti

Thomas Hardy - Tess of the d'Urbervilles




George SEURAT organizes memorial exhibition of VAN GOGH's work at Salon des Independants, Paris

A J Huysmans - La Bas




Stanley Spencer born

Arthur Rimbaud dies




Foundation of Munich Secession

Walt Whitman dies


Viscose discovered


CLAUDE MONET begins Rouen Cathedral series
Paul SIGNAC moves to St Tropez



Rudolf Diesel patents internal combustion engine


Paul SIGNAC moves to St Tropez





Cassatt Worlds Columbian Exposition murals
Vollard opens gallery Paris
Toulouse Lautrec posters for Moulin Rouge Paris
Bonnard Lithographs for La Revue Blanche
Sisley one man exhibition Boussof & Valadon
Enckell The awakening
Gauguin Ancestors of Tehamana
Munch The Scream

Puccini Manon Lescaut
Dvorak Symphony No.9 From the New World
Gounod, Tchaikovsky die

Rossetti Verses
Shaw Mrs Warrens Profession
Wilde A Woman of No Importance
Maupassant dies

Henry Forn and Benz construct four wheeled cars
World Exhibition in Chicago


Foundation of Dresden Secession
Gauguin returns to France
Pere Tanguy dies
Ambroise Vollard opens a gallery in rue Lattitte, Paris

Last of Emile Zola's Le Rougon-Macquart series of novels published
Stephane Mallarme - Vers et Prose
Guy de Maupassant dies
Hippolyte Taine dies
Tchaikovsky dies




Durand Ruel Redon exhibiton
Caillebotte bequest to nation and retrospective
Berenson publishes Venetian Painters of the Renaissance
Malczewski Melancholia
Meier Graefe Edvard Munch
Edvard Munch  Ashes
Caillebotte dies

Debussy - L'Apres-midi d'un faun

Kipling The Jungle Book
Gorky Goremkya Pavel

Edison invents motion picture
Lumiere brothers, Auguste and Louis invent cinematograph


Foundation of an artists colony in Dachau




Edvard Munch , Gallen Kalela joint exhibition Berlin
Cezanne exhibition Vollards gallery
Morisot dies

Mahler Sym No.2 Resurrection

Wells Time Machine

First Presentation of projected film Berlin
Pasteur dies


William Roberts born

Trial of Oscar Wilde
Venice Biennale founded
Promenade concerts founded in London by Sir Henry Wood
Thomas Hardy - Jude the Obscure


X-rays discovered
Guglielmo Marconi invents radio teleegraphy


Morisot retrospective Durand Ruel
Galerie Art Nouveau opens Paris
Degas exhibits photographs
Cezanne Old Woman with Rosary
Zorn Self-Portrait

Edmond de Goncourt dies
Puccini La Boheme
Strauss Also sprach Zarathustra

Housman A Shropshire Lad
Morris Kelmscott Chaucer

First Modern Olympic Games held in Athens


Andre Breton born

Edmond de Goncourt dies


First Modern Olympic Games held in Athens



Giacomo Puccine - La Boheme


Antoine Henri Becquerel discovers radioactivity


Tate Gallery opens
Sezession group Vienna founded
Rennie MacIntosh begins Glasgow School of Art
Sisley one man show Petits
Kollwitz Weavers Revolt etching
Gauguin Where do we come from what are we where are we going?
Rousseau The Sleeping Gypsy

Dukas Th Sorcerers Apprentice
Brahms dies

Chekhov Uncle Vanya
Bram Stoker Dracua
Wells Invisible Man
Rostand Cyrano de Bergerac

Exposition universelle in Brussels
Queen Victorias Diamond Jubilee


Foundation of Vienna Secession
Diaghilev mounts exhibitons of english and german watercolors and Scandanavian paintings

Gauguins Noa Noa published in Revue Blanche


Exposition universelle in Brussels
Queen Victorias Diamond Jubilee


Guimards Art Nouveau Castel Berenger built
Rodin Balzac
Boudin, Beardsley, Moreau, Burne-Jones, Puvis de Chavannes die

Stockholm Royal Opera House opensa

aravel Sheherazade

Moscow Art Theatre founded
Wells War of the Worlds
Mallarme, Carroll die



Foundation of Berlin Secession
Diaghilev mounts exhibiton of Russian and Finnish paintings
Gustave MOREAU dies
Pierre Puvis de Chavannes dies

Launch of World of Art magazine
Thomas Hardy - Wessex Poems
Stephane Mallarme dies
H G Wells - The War of the Worlds
Emile Zola - j'accuse


Opening of Paris Metro network
Pierre and Marie Curie discover radium
Ferdinand von Zeppelin builds first airship


Monet begins painting his water lily pond
Signac From Delacroix to Neo Impressionism
Choquet estate sale
Ensor Portrait of the Artists Surrounded by Maks
Vuillard Misia and Vallotton
Alfred SISLEY dies

Elgar Enigma Variations
J Strauss dies

Kipling White Mans Burden
Shaw Caesar and Cleopatra
Signacs D'Eugene Delacroix au neo-impressionisme published

Invention of aspirin


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